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Thursday, September 23, 2010

Linux Downloads!

Download openSUSE 11.3

Monday, September 20, 2010

The Top 10 Linux Server Distributions (For Me!)

You know that Linux is a hot data center server. You know that it saves you money in licensing and maintenance costs. But, what are your options for Linux as a server operating system? Listed here are the top ten Linux server distributions -- some of which you may not be aware. The following chararistics, in no particular order, qualified a distribution for inclusion in this list: Ease-of-use, available commercial support and data center reliability.

Ubuntu - At the top of almost every Linux-related list, Debian-based Ubuntu is in a class by itself. It surpasses all other distributions from its simple installation to its excellent hardware discovery to its world-class commercial support; Ubuntu leaves the others fumbling in the dusty distance.

Red Hat - Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) started out as the "little Linux company that could" and is now a major force in the quest for data center rackspace. The Linux darling of large companies throughout the world, Red Hat's innovations and non-stop support will have you coming back for more.

SUSE - Novell-owned SUSE Linux is stable, easy-to-maintain and offers Novell's 24x7 rapid-response support for those who don't have the time or patience for lengthy troubleshooting calls. And, Novell's consulting teams will have you meeting your SLAs and making your accountants happy to boot.

Mandriva - For U.S.-based executive or technical folks, Mandriva might be a bit foreign. This incredibly well-constructed Linux distibution hails from France and claims extreme acceptance in Europe and South America. It is, as its website claims, a worldwide Linux provider. Its name and its construction derive from the Mandrake Linux and Connectiva Linux distributions.

Xandros - If you prefer a Linux distribution with a Microsoft connection, Xandros is the one for you. Rumors aside, Xandros and Microsoft collaborate in what's known in technical circles as "cooperatition." This means that they compete cooperatively. To find out more about this unique perspective, check out the Xandros About page.

Slackware - While not generally associated with commercial distributions, Slackware maintains relationships with several companies that provide fee-based support. One of the earliest available distributions, Slackware has an extensive and faithful fan base. Its developers regularly release new versions.

Debian - If you're confused by Debian's inclusion here, don't be. Debian doesn't have formal commercial support but you can connect with Debian-savvy consultants around the world via their Consultants page. Debian has spawned more child distributions than any other parent distribution including Ubuntu, Linux Mint and Vyatta.

Vyatta - Vyatta is more at home on routers and firewalls than PC-based systems but if you want a commercially-driven distribution for those applications, Vyatta works well for your secure communications needs. Check out the free version of Vyatta Linux.

CentOS - It's true that CentOS isn't strictly commercial but since it's based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you can leverage commercial support for it. CentOS has its own repositories and community support and is not the same as Fedora Linux.

Unbreakable Linux - Oracle's Unbreakable Linux is Red Hat Enterprise Linux with some Oracle logos and art. Oracle competes directly with Red Hat with their distribution and quite effectively, since purchased support through Oracle is half the price of Red Hat's equivalent model.

Best Linux Distribution Top 7

There are various approaches to answering this question. The broad answer is: "any of them," but that's not very helpful if you're just looking for a place to start.

The problem is, there never can be one best Linux distribution for everyone, because the needs of each user tend to be unique. Telling someone who's looking for a good introductory distribution to try Gentoo, for instance, would be a mistake because for all its positive qualities, Gentoo is decidedly not a beginner's distro.

All too often, Linux aficionados will tend to list the distributions they like as the best, which is fair, but if they are not aware of their audience, they could suggest something that does not meet that person's needs. Finding a good Linux distribution is like finding a good match in an online dating service: good looks aren't the only quality upon which to judge a Linux distro.
To help users discover the Linux distribution that's best for them, this resource will definitively list the best candidates for the various types of Linux users to try. The use-case categories will be:

Best Desktop Distribution
Best Laptop Distribution
Best Enterprise Desktop
Best Enterprise Server
Best LiveCD
Best Security-Enhanced Distribution
Best Multimedia Distribution

Once you find the best Linux distribution for your needs, you can visit our Linux Migration Guides to assist you in installing and using the one you'd like to try.

Best Linux Desktop Distribution

There are a lot of Linux distributions that have the primary focus of becoming the next best desktop replacement for Windows or OS X. Of all the categories in this list, this is the most sought-after, and contentious, group of distros.

While it would be ideal to include many distributions on this list, the reality is that there really needs to be just one "best" Linux distribution. For early 2010, that distro has to be Canonical's Ubuntu.

Ubuntu edges out its closest contenders, Fedora and openSUSE, because its development team is constantly focused on the end-user experience. Canonical and the Ubuntu community have spent a lot of time and resources on bringing ease-of-use tools to this distribution, particularly in the area of installing Ubuntu and installing applications within Ubuntu.

In addition, Ubuntu's level of support for its desktop products is highly superior, which is important in this class of distributions since it is the most likely to contain users new to Linux. Both the official and unofficial Ubuntu documentation is robust and searchable, a big plus.

Best Linux Laptop Distribution

Laptop distributions almost fall into the same category as desktop users, but there are a number of key differences that make the criteria for evaluating a good laptop distribution important. Power management, docking tools, and wireless ease-of-use are critical to users on the go, as is having a distro that meets those needs.

Right now, the best laptop distribution is openSUSE, one of the lead contenders for the desktop honors. On the laptop, openSUSE shines with great connectivity tools, such as an easy-to-use networking toolset that not only handles WiFi connectivity, but also CDMA/cellular modem connections.

openSUSE also deals with docking stations for laptops very well, including dual-monitor management on the fly. Power management is very granular, which is great for detailing various power needs you might find yourself needing.

Best Linux Enterprise Desktop

This category is replete with great contenders as well, and it's difficult to highlight just one. At the end of the day, though, the nod must be given to SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop (SLED).
The reason is simple: while SLED and its primary competitor Red Hat Enterprise Linux Desktop are nearly identical in features and support performance, SLED has the advantage of the openSUSE Build Service, a free and open service that lets applications be built and delivered to SUSE Linux and openSUSE products (as well as Red Hat and CentOS).

This is a very important differentiator in enterprise desktop development, as it means that SLED has the current advantage of application building and deployment in the enterprise arena.

Best Linux Enterprise Server

Again, in this category it really comes down to two main contenders: Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) andSUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES). Given the pick for the Enterprise Desktop category, you might expect SLES to get the "best of" label here.

But, when all factors for the enterprise server are weighed, RHEL is still the king of this particular hill.

Red Hat edges out Novell with its server product, because RHEL users get a deeply mature distribution, and Red Hat's support structure is second to none in the enterprise channels.

Best Linux LiveCD

As Linux technology improves, users can easily choose the LiveCD version of practically any of the Linux distros listed here to get the best LiveCD experience for their needs.

There is a specialized class of LiveCDs, however, that offers users utilities and tools for the specific purpose of repairing existing Linux and Windows installations. These distros are very useful to have regardless of what primary Linux distribution you like to use, because in a crisis they are invaluable to own.

In this class of distribution, KNOPPIX is hands-down the most complete and useful distro. Loaded on a CD or USB storage device, KNOPPIX will let you recover from nearly any rare Linux system crash as well as the much-less-rare Windows breakdowns.

Best Linux Security-Enhanced Distribution

Linux is inherently very secure compared to other operating systems, but there's always room for improvement.

One of the challenges for locking down Linux is if you are not careful, you can take away too much functionality. Another challenge is that the best security-oriented Linux distro, SELinux, is historically known to be difficult to configure correctly. Still, if security out of the box is your priority, this is the best place to begin.

Another approach is the white hat method: using security and forensic tools to examine your existing installation, determine the holes, then lock your system down based on what gaps you find. If you have the time and inclination, this is a great way to do it, because this will get any existing system more secure right away.

For the white hat approach, the best distribution is BackTrack Linux, a dedicated penetration testing distro that will enable you to safely try to crack any system you are caretaking. Its toolset and strong community give it the advantage in this category.

Best Linux Multimedia Distribution

General Linux distributions have come a long way in terms of multimedia performance. Rare is the audio or video file that can't be played on Linux. Music services such as Rhapsody and video sites like YouTube and Hulu are also standards-compliant and accessible to Linux users.
Still, for those users who are multimedia creators as well as consumers, there are Linux distributions that contain powerful tools for audio and video editing.

The best in this class is currently Ubuntu Studio. For audio, video, and graphic production, it contains a very complete set of tools, as well as format and codec support for a huge range of multimedia formats.

The applications contained in Ubuntu Studio are the same or similar to those used by major studios to create cutting edge work, so users are getting the best apps, coupled with the strong support ethos already found in the Ubuntu community.

In Linux there are as many opinions as there are lines of code. This represents one view of the best in Linux. What's yours?

JProject: Create a Live USB Key Linux Distribution

Until world domination is complete, you simply cannot count on Linux being available everywhere you travel. Thus, when you're vacationing or on a business trip and need access to a Linux environment — or get the inevitable PC troubleshooting help request — you'll have to have a bootable distribution with you. A variety of tools can help you tailor a live USB distro to your liking, including data persistence and encryption, so grab an unused USB flash drive from the desk drawer and make exactly what you need this weekend.

The first question you need to answer for yourself is what distribution you wish to use as the basis for your live USB key. Most of the popular desktop distributions provide live CD images for testing or installation purposes, and include a utility to install such an image onto other media, including external hard disk storage or a flash drive. With the rise in popularity of optical-drive-less netbooks and tablets, providing USB as an installation path guarantees that the distributions will continue to make booting from flash a priority. If you are simply interested in building a portable environment like the one you use at home, you should start by looking for such a utility within your distro.

Branching out a little, there are a handful of good multi-distribution live USB creation utilities you should consider if, for some reason, your distribution of choice does not provide the options you need. It is also possible to install a bootable image onto a flash drive manually, and there are several good step-by-step guides to help you through this process. Last but certainly not least, it is important to know what the options are for creating a bootable Linux USB key from within Windows or another operating system — if you find yourself in that situation, familiarity with only the Linux-based tools places you in an uncomfortable chicken-and-egg situation.

Distribution Tools

The distribution-specific tools all vary slightly, both in how they work and in what they require of the installation medium. In most cases, you will need to download the live CD image ahead of time in order to copy it to a USB stick or flash card, and unless otherwise specified, installing a bootable Linux environment on a USB key will mean erasing its existing contents.

The openSUSE utility is called SUSE Studio Image Writer. It is a GUI tool that allows you to drag-and-drop an ISO image into its window, and it will automatically partition and install a bootable live image onto any attached USB storage key. The distribution recommends 1GB minimum for the latest release, 11.3.

Fedora's utility is called Fedora LiveUSB Creator. The distro recommends 1GB minimum of unused storage, formatted as VFAT. The LiveUSB Creator will install an image non-destructively on a key that already has files on it, as long as there is sufficient free space. The GUI can also download a supported live CD ISO image for you in a background process, although you may want to perform the download manually if you intend to build from a non-standard release, such as an Alpha or a Rawhide testing build. It also allows you to set up a persistent storage area on the key in whatever size you choose from the remaining available space.

Ubuntu's utility (also available in Kubuntu and derivatives) is called Startup Disk Creator. It requires you to download the desired ISO image before getting started, but it does give you several install-time options. You can choose to install the image non-destructively or to re-format the USB key, and you can select between creating a persistent storage area or leaving it off entirely.

The Debian project has a GUI tool called Debian Live Magic, with which you can create a bootable USB key using a wide array of options, including distribution (stable, unstable, or testing), hardware architecture, environment (including non-X environments), localization, and package selection. Unlike the other tools already discussed, Live Magic does not simply copy an ISO image onto the USB drive and make it bootable; it downloads current Debian packages and creates a custom virtual filesystem. This takes considerably longer, but is very flexible.

Knoppix, of course, is a distribution designed to run as a live CD out-of-the-box. It has a USB installation tool called flash-knoppix that can install the current live CD image onto a flash drive. It requires FAT formatted media, and does not do repartitioning. As you might expect, however, Knoppix's built-in persistent storage overlay works automatically.

Multi-distro Tools

The above tools certainly do not cover everyone, and they don't really address some of the special-purpose needs that you may be interested in building a bootable live USB key to handle.

The Universal Netboot Installer (UNetbootin) can install a range of different Linux-based systems onto USB storage. The list includes popular distributions (including those listed in the previous section, as well as CentOS, Mandriva, Slackware, Gentoo, and more), various BSD OSes, and any live CD ISO image you have on hand. For the pre-fab distribution options, the application downloads an ISO image automatically.

It also provides a way to build a completely custom installation by uploading a kernel image, initrd file, and specifying command-line boot options. Obviously, in order to have a complete system, you will also need to install the rest of the distribution as well, but this feature of UNetbootin does also enable you to install multiple kernels onto a single USB key, which could come in handy if you are building a hardware diagnosis image and encounter driver woes. There is also a derivative of UNetbootin called FUSBi that, for philosophical reasons, restricts the pre-selected distro image list to only those projects endorsed by the Free Software Foundation.

Multiboot LiveUSB is another Linux-based application for installing a variety of different distributions onto USB storage, but with one important difference. Unlike UNetbootin, Multiboot's main goal is to install multiple bootable images onto a single drive. You can use it to install any combination of distributions from its supported list, which currently includes Ubuntu, Fedora, Debian, MeeGo, Gentoo, and many, many more, including some helpful utility distros such as Clonezilla and Ophcrack Live. Persistence is only available for a few of these, however.

Finally, Portable Linux is a basic, no-frills live USB disk creator. It is approximately the equivalent of one of the drag-and-drop tools from the distribution-specific list above, but places no requirements on what ISO images are supported. UNetbootin and Multiboot offer more options, including multi-distro-installation, but Portable Linux is a good backup option if neither of the above work out for you. At least with USB storage, unlike optical media, you can afford to experiment a few times.

Windows and Web-based Tools

If you get stuck on a Windows machine and need to build a live USB key, you have fewer options. UNetbootin, mentioned above, has a Windows build. The same features are available as on the Linux version, and the same distributions are supported.

The Linux Live USB Creator (LiLi) is a Windows-only GUI tool that allows you to create live USB images from a fixed list of supported distro ISOs that includes several generations of Ubuntu, Debian, Fedora, PCLinuxOS, and Gentoo distributions, including derivatives, and several security and rescue CD distributions. It supports persistence and non-destructive installation, but requires FAT or FAT32 as the drive filesystem. One unusual feature is that LiLi can "hide" files from Windows by setting the system (S) and hidden (H) filesystem attributes. They will, of course, remain visible to other operating systems.

Mandriva offers its own Windows live USB creator called Mandriva Seed, released alongside the ISOs for each new version of Mandriva. It is designed to work with the latest Mandriva release, although any Linux ISO should be supported.

Finally, the Slax project is a special case. The distribution itself is based on Slackware, but Slax provides a web-based interface for configuring and building a live USB image. The online build tool breaks the distribution into package modules, including the OS core, X, KDE, KOffice, development tools, and around fifteen different application bundles. As you build the configuration you want, the site gives you a running total of how much drive space your ISO will require.

The Cowboy Way

As you can see, there is an abundance of tools to help you simply load an ISO image onto a USB stick and make it bootable. But if you want to bypass the point-and-drool process and completely customize the software you install onto your drive, you can do that, too.

Naturally, if you need to partition and format the USB key before starting, you can use the standard fdisk and mkfs tools on a flash drive just like you would any other storage medium. You should use a FAT filesystem on bootable USB keys, and therefore create the filesystem with mkdisfs -F 16 /dev/sde1, substituting the appropriate partition name. Note that for drives of 4GB capacity or higher, you will have to use FAT32, a la mkdisfs -F 32 /dev/sde1.

Underneath the hood, what the GUI live USB-creation tools do is copy the raw contents of the ISO file to the USB device. You can do this manually with dd, for example, by running dd if=/home/nate/NateLinux_1.0.32bit.iso of=/dev/sde bs=8M. In that command, if specifies the input file, of specifies the device name (note that this is not the partition name, which would be /dev/sde1 or something similar), and bs specifies a block size. This raw copy preserves low-level information from the ISO — including the Master Boot Record (MBR) that makes the volume bootable — that would be overlooked by simply copying file contents from one device to another.

Where different distributions vary is in what additional steps you need to take to ensure that the bootloader copied from the CD ISO will work when transferred to the USB stick. This depends on the bootloader (Syslinux, GRUB, GRUB2, etc.) and choices made by the distribution. The best plan of attack is to consult a distribution-specific guide. GRUB is very forgiving of different configuration options; essentially if you can place a vmlinuz file somewhere on the drive, you can probably get it to boot. Syslinux is not so kind. OpenSUSE, Fedora, Ubuntu, and Gentoo all provide detailed guides with such low-level instructions.

Whichever approach you take, the USB boot options supported by the host machine's BIOS can throw you for a loop. PCs have been able to boot off of USB media for several generations, but some BIOSes can have settings that keep the computer from looking at USB media — or at least from looking at it before hard disks. Worse yet, Intel-based Mac hardware may not be able to boot Linux from USB media at all, due to discrepancies between Apple's EFI firmware and "legacy" mode BIOS.

Understanding Persistence and Encryption Options

Data persistence of live USB distributions is accomplished by creating a second filesystem that is "stacked" on top of the existing (usually compressed) filesystem with Unionfs. The second, writable filesystem is not simply mounted into the first, they are overlayed on top of one another — any file that exists in the original filesystem can be changed by a new version saved in the second. This allows you not only to store data files in your home directory, but to alter system configuration files anywhere on the filesystem. It is a slick idea, but it comes with two big side effects.

The first is that your flash media gets exposed to far more write cycles than it normally would when used just for file transport. This can significantly shorten the lifespan of the device. The second is that you cannot use an encrypting filesystem such as eCryptfs to secure your home directory on the key: eCryptfs cannot (currently) be stacked.

Thus, if you need to secure some data on your live USB stick, you have to turn to alternative tools like Truecrypt, which creates a large encrypted file that you use as a container for other files, and decrypt after logging in. It is not an ideal solution, perhaps, but then again you are more likely to accidentally misplace a USB key than an internal hard drive, so caution is the word of the day.

But even if you do not use encryption or persistence to achieve secure, portable Linux nirvana, a live USB key is a better totable computing environment than a live CD for a number of reasons. It is less fragile, smaller, fits into almost any device (unlike "business card" CDs), and on top of everything else, its read times are significantly faster.

Making wireless work in Ubuntu 10.04 LTS

Simply click on the Network-Manager icon to see all available wireless networks, and click on the network to connect to it. If wireless authentication is needed, be it WEP, WPA, or 802.1x, a network-manager dialog will pop up asking for your authentication details.

If network manager does not solve the problem, the first step should be to see which driver your wireless card needs. Do a search for your card on Google and in the Ubuntu Forums to find out which driver you need. Many of the drivers are already included in Ubuntu, but some newer drivers may not be present.

Next, you need to find out if the driver is loaded. As an example, if you have an Intel Centrino and it uses the ipw2200 driver, run this command:

sudo lsmod | grep ipw2200
Replace ipw2200 with the relevant driver for your card. If you get some lines returned, the driver is loaded and working. If nothing is returned, your card is either not supported or the driver is not included in Ubuntu. You should refer to the Ubuntu Forums for further support.

With the card identified, you now need to get connected. The easiest way to do this is to select System -> Administration -> Networking. Inside this tool you should see an icon for your wireless card. Select it and click the Properties button. Add the name of the wireless network and a password if applicable. If you are using a normal password such as s3cr3tpass, select Plain (ASCII) from the Key type box. If you are entering the long numeric password, use the Hexedecimal option. If you don't have a password on your wireless network, leave the Key type and WEP key boxes empty.

If you are automatically assigned an IP address, use the Configuration box to select DHCP. Otherwise, select Static IP Address, and enter the details of your network in the boxes.

For more information, see the Ubuntu wiki.

Using WPA

To use WPA, you need a supported card. Such cards are listed on the WPA Supplicant Web site. Common drivers that support WPA include ipw2200, ipw2100, and madwifi.

To use WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) with wireless cards in Ubuntu, the wpasupplicant package must be installed. After installing it, edit /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf. Networks are configured by adding network blocks to the configuration file. Each network block can also be assigned a priority so if both networks are seen, the higher priority network is chosen. Examples for common network configurations can be found in /usr/share/doc/wpasupplicant/examples/wpa_supplicant.conf.gz.

Some configurations require certificates that should be available from the network administrator. WPA Supplicant can also configure your wireless card to use unencrypted networks, as noted in the example file. After writing the file, edit /etc/default/wpasupplicant and change the ENABLED, DRIVER, and INTERFACE options. The DRIVER option should match the type of wireless device being used. Available drivers can be viewed by typing:

wpa_supplicant -help
To start the Supplicant run:

/etc/init.d/wpasupplicant start

Lastly, wpasupplicant should be added to STOP_SERVICES in /etc/default/ acpi-support to ensure it functions properly after a system suspend or hibernation.

To check if the connection is working, run:

sudo wpa_cli

This command gives information on the current connection along with scrolling logs to indicate the current status. By default wpa_cli must be run as root. Status will show what network the wireless card is currently connected to and parameters about the link. Scan causes the supplicant to look for a new access point while scan_results will display what access points are locally accessible to the machine. As soon as the supplicant authenticates, ifplugd should start the interface with ifup, and networking will be available shortly. If it seems that the supplicant is not working it may be that a different driver must be selected in the /etc/defaults/wpasupplicant configuration file. Also, some cards cannot operate in a mixed TKIP/CCMP (types of encryption) mode. If it appears the PTK listed in the log from wpa_cli is CCMP but that the GTK is TKIP, setting the pairwise and group entries of a network configuration block to TKIP may fix the issue.

Saturday, September 18, 2010

Listing of Linux Flavor

An LFS-based Linux distribution that uses a modified hierarchy. All programs are listed something like /Programs/Foo/1.0/ while the kernel and other critical packages are listed under /System. Comes as a LiveCD with an installer on disc.

Source Mage is a source-based GNU/Linux distribution based on a Sorcery metaphor of "casting" and "dispelling" programs, which we refer to as "spells", and a package manager called "Sorcery".

Gnome Desktop Environment; Grub2 Boot loader; Gdm. Gosalia is an Operating System built for all ages. It comes with the latest Graphical Utilities in the open-source world and is guaranteed to be easier to use than Windows and Macintosh combined.

Ark Linux is a Linux distribution meant primarily for the desktop. Its focus is on being as easy to use as possible while remaining technically sane. It is not directly based on any other distribution, but borrows from several others where it makes sense.

Mint is based on Ubuntu, and in turn based on Debian GNU/Linux, Linux Mint's purpose is to produce an elegant, up to date and comfortable GNU/Linux desktop distribution.

Xubuntu is a community developed, Linux-based operating system that is perfect for laptops, desktops and servers. It contains all the applications you need--a web browser, document and spreadsheet editing software, instant messaging and much more. Xubuntu ...

Kubuntu is a free, user-friendly operating system based on the K Desktop Environment and on the award winning Ubuntu operating system. With a biannual release cycle and at least 18 months of free security updates for each release, it is the secure, stable...

Gentoo is a free operating system based on either Linux or BSD that can be automatically optimized and customized for just about any application or need. Extreme configurability, performance and a top-notch user and developer community are all hallmarks.

Parsix GNU/Linux is a live and installation CD derived from KANOTIX and based on Debian. It is a complete GNOME centric desktop oriented distribution. Parsix GNU/Linux supports dozens of languages including 200 languages.

A lightweight and flexible Linux distribution that tries to Keep It Simple.

Zorin OS is an Ubuntu based Linux distribution that replicates the Windows graphical user interface to make it easier for Windows users to use. Zorin OS is faster than Windows, more reliable than Windows, open source and free.

Ubuntu is a complete desktop Linux operating system, freely available with both community and professional support. The Ubuntu community is built on the ideas enshrined in the Ubuntu Manifesto: that software should be available free of charge.

How set up virtual server (ubuntu server)

I assume that you have a running DNS server and configured.

First we will change the owner of /var/cache/bind to user:bind and group:bind.

chown bind. /var/cache/bind

We will update the file /etc/bind/named.conf.local and make some few changes. The changes that have been added to the file are highlighted in bold.

// Do any local configuration here

// Consider adding the 1918 zones here, if they are not used in your
// organization
//include "/etc/bind/zones.rfc1918";

include "/etc/bind/rndc.key";

controls {
inet allow { localhost; } keys { "rndc-key"; };

zone "exx007.lan" {
type master;
file "db.debian.lan";
allow-update { key "rndc-key"; };

zone "" {
type master;
file "db.192.168.100";
allow-update { key "rndc-key"; };

Install and configure dhcp3-server

apt-get install dhcp3-server

vi /etc/default/dhcp3-server

Configure which interface the dhcpd server should listen to. I this case, I assume that our LAN interface is "eth1".

# Defaults for dhcp initscript
# sourced by /etc/init.d/dhcp
# installed at /etc/default/dhcp3-server by the maintainer scripts

# This is a POSIX shell fragment

# On what interfaces should the DHCP server (dhcpd) serve DHCP requests?
# Separate multiple interfaces with spaces, e.g. "eth0 eth1".

Then we will configure the dhcp configuration file, create a backup of the file /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf and edit it.

cp /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf.bak

vi /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf

Make sure the configuration file should be exactly the same like this:

ddns-update-style interim;
ignore client-updates;

include "/etc/bind/rndc.key";

zone exx007.lan. {
key "rndc-key";


subnet netmask {
option domain-name-servers;
option domain-name "debian.lan";
option routers;
default-lease-time 600;
max-lease-time 7200;

zone main.exx007.lan. {
key "rndc-key";

zone {
key "rndc-key";

Restart the DNS server and the DHCP server.

/etc/init.d/bind9 restart

/etc/init.d/dhcp3-server restart

Your DDNS server should be ok.

Now, if your client in your LAN is Ubuntu, you need to edit the file


vi /etc/dhcp3/dhclient.conf

Add the following information

send host-name "pc-name";
and run this command to renew your ip address and domain name.
dhclient eth0

Test your client domain name using dig or nslookup command:
nslookup an-an
the command will return the following message:

Name: an-an.exx007.lan
Check the reverse dns
the command will return the following message:
Address: name = an-an.exx007.lan.

Have fun!

Friday, July 9, 2010

java loop

public class activity
public static void main( String[] args ) throws IOException {
BufferedReader dataIn = new BufferedReader(new
InputStreamReader( );
int fnum;
int lnum;

System.out.println("Enter first number:");
fnum = Integer.parseInt( dataIn.readLine());

if (fnum != fnum){

System.out.print ("Enter last number : ");
lnum = Integer.parseInt( dataIn.readLine());

if (fnum > lnum){
System.out.print("Cannot allow to make a loop!");

if (fnum == fnum){
while (fnum <= lnum){

System.out.print("Cannot allow to make a loop");


Tuesday, July 6, 2010



1. To understand how computers process sound.

2. To understand how computers synthesize

3. To understand the differences between two
major kinds of audio, namely digitized sound
and MIDI music

The Nature of Sound

Sound is a physical phenomenon produced by the vibration of matter and transmitted as waves.

However, the perception of sound by human beings is a very complex process. It involves three systems:

1. SOURCE which emits sound;

2.MEDIUM through which the sound propagates;

3.DETECTOR which receives and interprets the sound.

Sound waves can be characterized by the following attributes:


Pitch and Frequency

Period - is the interval at which a periodic signal repeats regularly.

Pitch - is a perception of sound by human beings It measures how ‘high’ is the sound as it is perceived by a listener.

Frequency - measures a physical property of a wave.

Musical instruments are tuned to produce a set of
fixed pitches

Loudness and Amplitude
The other important perceptual quality is loudness or volume.

Amplitude is the measure of sound levels.

Typical sound levels generated by various sources

160 dB Jet engine
130 dB Large orchestra at fortissimo
100 dB Car on highway
70 dB Voice conversation
50 dB Quiet residential areas
30 dB Very soft whisper
20 dB Sound studio

Dynamic and Bandwidth

Dynamic range - means the change in sound levels.
For example, a large orchestra can reach 130dB at its climax and drop to as low as 30dB at its softest, giving a range of 100dB.

Bandwidth - is the range of frequencies a device can produce or a human can hear.


FM radio 50Hz – 15kHz
AM radio 80Hz – 5kHz
CD player 20Hz – 20kHz
Sound Blaster 16 sound card 30Hz – 20kHz
Inexpensive microphone 80Hz – 12kHz
Telephone 300Hz – 3kHz
Children’s ears 20Hz – 20kHz
Older ears 50Hz – 10kHz
Male voice 120Hz – 7kHz
Female voice 200Hz – 9kHz

Sunday, July 4, 2010


using System;

namespace leapyear
class Program
public static void Main(string[] args)
Console.WriteLine("Enter a year");
string a = Console.ReadLine();
// int a = int.Parse(a);
if (a.Length==4)
int b = int.Parse(a);
Console.WriteLine("Leap Year");
Console.WriteLine("Not a Leapyear");
Console.Write("Press any key to continue . . . ");

Sunday, June 27, 2010

db2 I need to learn!

I need to learn db2 at all cost!

Thursday, June 24, 2010

Ten (10)Programming-Languages, I Should Learn Right Now

1. PHP

What it is: An open-source, interpretive, server-side, cross-platform, HTML scripting language, especially well-suited for Web development as it can be embedded into HTML pages.
Why you should learn it: Its particularly widely used. "High-speed scripting with caching, augmented with compiled code plug-ins (such as can be done with Perl and PHP) is where the future is. Building Web apps from scratch using C or COBOL is going the way of the dinosaur.
Job availabilities: 1,152*

2. C#

What it is: A general-purpose, compiled, object-oriented programming language developed by Microsoft as part of its .NET initiative, it evolved from C and C++
Why you should learn it: Its an essential part of the .Net framework. "Learning C#, which is just Java with a different name plate, is critical if you heavily use Microsoft.
Job availabilities: 5,111

3. AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML)

What it is: Though technically not a programming language, AJAX uses XHTML or HTML, JavaScript and XML to create interactive Web applications.
Why you should learn it: Ever since Google Maps put AJAX, well, on the map, the requests for AJAX-knowledgeable pros went through the roof. "The demand for AJAX knowledge is huge because its so damned hard to learn," said Huckaby. Of note, Microsoft announced recently plans to release a tool named Atlas that will make AJAX easier to implement. "If Microsofts Atlas tool is successful, it would bring the extreme complexity and annoyance of AJAX to the average worker.
Job availabilities : 1,106

4. JavaScript

What it is: Not to be confused with Java, JavaScript is a an object-oriented, scripting programming language that runs in the Web browser on the client side. Its smaller than Java, with a simplified set of commands, easier to code and doesnt have to be compiled.
Why you should learn it: Embedded into HTML, its used in millions of Web pages to validate forms, create cookies, detect browsers and improve the design. With its simplicity to learn as well as wide use, its considered a great bang for your educational buck.
Job availabilities: 4,406

5. Perl

What it is: Perl is an open-source, cross-platform, server-side interpretive programming language used extensively to process text through CGI programs.
Why you should learn it: Perls power in processing of piles of text has made it very popular and widely used to write Web server programs for a range of tasks. "Learning some form of scripting language, such as Perl or PHP is critical if you are doing Web apps.
Job availabilities: 4,810

6. C

What it is: A standardized, general-purpose programming language, its one of the most pervasive languages and the basis for several others (such as C++).
Why you should learn it: "Learning C is crucial. Once you learn C, making the jump to Java or C# is fairly easy, because a lot of the syntax is common. Also, a lot of C syntax is used in scripting languages.
Job availabilities: 6,164, including all derivatives

7. Ruby and Ruby on Rails

What they are: Ruby is a dynamic, object-oriented, open-source programming language; Ruby on Rails is an open-source Web application framework written in Ruby that closely follows the MVC (Model-View-Controller) architecture.
Why you should learn it: With a focus on simplicity, productivity and letting the computers do the work, in a few years, its usage has spread quickly. As a bonus, many find it easy to learn.
Job availabilities : 210 and 54, respectively

8. Java

What it is: An object-oriented programming language developed by James Gosling and colleagues at Sun Microsystems in the early 1990s.
Why you should learn it: Hailed by many developers as a "beautiful" language, it is central to the non-.Net programming experience. "Learning Java is critical if you are non-Microsoft.
Job availabilities: 14,408

9. Python

What it is: An interpreted, dynamically object-oriented, open-source programming language that utilizes automatic memory management.
Why you should learn it: Designed to be a highly readable, minimalist language, many say it has a sense of humor (spam and eggs, rather than foo and bar), Python is used extensively by Google as well as in academia because of its syntactic simplicity.
Job availabilities: 811

10. VB.Net (Visual Basic .Net)

What it is: An object-oriented language implemented on Microsofts .Net framework.
Why you should learn it: Most argue that VB.Net is currently more popular than ever and one of the only "must-learns." "It is currently dominating in adoption and that is where all the work. Job availabilities: 2,090

Java program for input output sample!

public class GetInputFromKeyboard
public static void main( String[] args ){
BufferedReader dataIn = new BufferedReader(new
InputStreamReader( );
String name = "";
String Age = "";
System.out.println("Please Enter Your Name:");

System.out.println("Enter Your Age");
name = dataIn.readLine();
Age = dataIn.readLine();
}catch( IOException e ){
System.out.println("Hello " + name + "" + "and you are " + Age + "" + "Years Old");

Sunday, June 20, 2010

Program asking the user for their name and then prints a personalized greeting.

public class HelloToYou {
public static void main (String args[])
byte exx[] = new byte[100];
int an_an = 0;
System.out.println("Your name Please?");
try {
an_an =;
System.out.print("Welcome to the world of JDK and your Instructor is Mr.Parazo, HELLO: ");
catch (IOException jabrasr) {

Setting set path to compile java program using command promt

Microsoft Windows XP [Version 5.1.2600]
(C) Copyright 1985-2010 Microsoft Corp.

On command promt!


set path="C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.5.0_07\bin"

looks like this

C:\Documents and Settings\anarchy - 01>set path="C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.5.0_07\bin"

press ENTER!

and look like this

C:\Documents and Settings\anarchy - 01>



press ENTER

and result look like this


then type

cd "Documents and Settings\anarchy - 01\Desktop\java files"

and it's look like this

C:\Documents and Settings\anarchy - 01>cd "Documents and Settings\anarchy - 01\Desktop\java files"

press ENTER

and result look like this!

C:\Documents and Settings\anarchy - 01\Desktop\java files>

you can now compile your java program anywhere you like!!!

CrossOver Cable and StraightThrought cable

Cross Cable

(RJ-45) - A
1. Green Strip
2. Green
3. Orange Strip
4. Blue
5. Blue Strip
6. Orange
7. Brown Strip
8. Brown

(RJ-45) - B
1. Orange Strip
2. Orange
3. Green Strip
4. Blue
5. Blue Strip
6. Green
7. Brown Strip
8. Brown

Straight Cable

(RJ-45) - A
1. Orange Strip
2. Orange
3. Green Strip
4. Blue
5. Blue Strip
6. Green
7. Brown Strip
8. Brown

(RJ-45) - B
1. Orange Strip
2. Orange
3. Green Strip
4. Blue
5. Blue Strip
6. Green
7. Brown Strip
8. Brown